", "What Elements Are Found in the Human Body? Our daily newsletter arrives just in time for lunch, offering up the day's biggest science news, our latest features, amazing Q&As and insightful interviews. Persons with more fat will have a higher proportion of carbon and a lower proportion of most other elements (the proportion of hydrogen will be about the same). In a large sample of adults of all ages and both sexes, the figure for water fraction by weight was found to be 48 ±6% for females and 58 ±8% water for males. Just four of these – carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N) – make up about 96% of the human body. (18%) You may also wish to view the elemental composition of an average human body by mass. Oxygen is one of the most abundant chemicals elements in the human body. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen together account for 99 percent of the atoms in a person. Water (H2O) is composed of two parts hydr… They are called essential as the body cannot produce them, and without them, you can become seriously ill.. What Do Minerals Do For The Body? Chief among these are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, and iron. The four main elements in the human body are oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen. The human body consists of as many as 60 chemical elements. Examples include cesium and titanium. Carbon- necessary for life. For more details, see our Privacy Policy. [33] Transferrins can bind aluminium.[34]. What Are the Elements in the Human Body? They are found throughout your body, mostly as water but also as components of biomolecules such as … [7] This varies substantially by age, sex, and adiposity. The adult male body is about 60% water for a total water content of some 42 litres (9.2 imp gal; 11 US gal). Those that neither help nor harm humans are called commensal organisms. No evidence for biological action in mammals, but essential in some lower organisms. Water is the main component of the human body. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. there are four most abundant elements in the human body – hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen – account for more than 99 per cent of the atoms inside you. Scientists believe that about 25 of the known elements are essential to life. It is also an essential part of the human diet. The other trace elements (less than 0.01%) are: boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), fluorine (F), iodine (I), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). U.S. Geological Survey. You may also wish to view the element composition of the human body in terms of mass percent. Ultratrace minerals. The pancha bhoota are the basic elements that make up any living organism on Earth or anywhere else in the Universe. https://www.thoughtco.com/elements-in-the-human-body-p2-602188 (accessed January 25, 2021). Only about 0.85% is composed of another five elements: potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium. The most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust are oxygen (46.6%) and silicon (27.7%). Ask a Biologist. Oxygen is the most abundant, while hydrogen occupies the third place in the list. Oxygen is one of the important elements that require greater attention, the whole site is otherwise dedicated to this element.. The values correspond to the element’s mass fraction in an average human body. This periodic table shows the percent composition of the average human body. Arsenic is considered to be toxic to humans, but serves a function in other mammals (goats, rats, hamsters) in trace amounts. [1] All of the mass of the trace elements put together (less than 10 grams for a human body) do not add up to the body mass of magnesium, the least common of the 11 non-trace elements. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/elements-in-the-human-body-p2-602188. For example, the human body often contains trace amounts of thorium, uranium, samarium, tungsten, beryllium, and radium. The remaining elements are trace elements, of which more than a dozen are thought on the basis of good evidence to be necessary for life. The composition of the human body is expressed in terms of chemicals: The composition of the human body can be viewed on an atomic and molecular scale as shown in this article. https://www.thoughtco.com/elemental-composition-of-human-body-603896 All of the mass of the trace elements put together (less than 10 grams for a human body) do not add up to the bo… Elements in the Human Body . Like all nutrients, minerals act as cofactors with each other, with vitamins and enzyme systems, thus causing billions of chemical reactions in the body that are necessary for survival. Elements in the Human Body (25) Here are all the elements required if you want to build a human body, in order of the quantity required. In terms of tissue type, the body may be analyzed into water, fat, connective tissue, muscle, bone, etc. 96.2% of the mass of the human body is made up of just four elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Authors: Nielsen, Forrest H. USDA, ARS Source: Modern nutrition in health and disease / editors, Maurice E. Shils ... et al. Aluminum is interesting because it is the third most common element in the Earth's crust, but its role in the human body is unknown. While fluorine is used by plants to produce protective toxins and has "apparent beneficial intake" in humans. … Only about 0.85% is composed of another five elements: potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium. The molar amount of the most abundant elements is given in the table. Start studying 13 most common elements in the human body. Others are actively toxic, including mercury, cadmium, and radioactive elements. The relative amounts of each element vary by individual, mainly due to differences in the proportion of fat, muscle and bone in their body. The estimated gross molecular contents of a typical 20-micrometre human cell is as follows:[38]. There you can find the metals, semi-conductor(s), non-metal(s), inert noble gas(ses), Halogens, Lanthanoides, Actinoids (rare earth elements… The eleven common elements found in the human body and their percentage of total body weight. [5] About 29 of these elements are thought to play an active positive role in life and health in humans.[6]. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. Six elements account for 99% of the mass of the human body. Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. The relationship between the five systems and the five elements are as follows: Five elements… Of the 94 naturally occurring chemical elements, 61 are listed in the table above. ThoughtCo, Oct. 29, 2020, thoughtco.com/elements-in-the-human-body-p2-602188. Please note that the elements do not show their natural relation towards each other as in the Periodic system. Because of water content, the human body contains more oxygen by mass than any other element, but more hydrogen by atom-fraction than any element. While 21 are considered either trace elements or major elements and are important for health, just four elements make up 96 percent of a body’s mass. [3] Fluorine is used by a number of plants to manufacture toxins (see that element) but in humans only functions as a local (topical) hardening agent in tooth enamel, and not in an essential biological role. How Many Chemical Elements are in the Human Body? Body composition can also be expressed in terms of various types of material, such as: There are many species of bacteria and other microorganisms that live on or inside the healthy human body. (By proportion of total body mass) Get our daily LUNCHTIME GENIUS newsletter . Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "What Are the Elements in the Human Body?" You can opt-out at any time. https://www.bibalex.org/SCIplanet/en/Article/Details?id=12462 She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Elements listed as "Possibly" or "Probably" essential are those cited by the National Research Council (United States) as beneficial to human health and possibly or probably essential.[10]. In terms of cell type, the body contains hundreds of different types of cells, but notably, the largest number of cells contained in a human body (though not the largest mass of cells) are not human cells, but bacteria residing in the normal human gastrointestinal tract. Some are considered contaminants that appear to do no harm but serve no known function. Human beings learn about the outside world through these orifices. "The Water in You: Water and the Human Body." Potassium-40 is the most radioactive of the normal body radioelements, and enters the body within all the food we eat. These five elements have a strong affinity for sulfur; in the human body they usually bind, via thiol groups (–SH), to enzymes responsible for controlling the speed of metabolic reactions. The resulting sulfur-metal bonds inhibit the proper functioning of the enzymes involved; human health deteriorates, sometimes fatally. Organic chemistry is centered around carbon. So, for example, oxygen accounts for 65% of the mass of the body, while nitrogen is 3% and so on. 96% of the body is oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. Aluminium, the third most common element in the Earth's crust (after oxygen and silicon), serves no function in living cells, but is toxic in large amounts, depending on its physical and chemical forms and magnitude, duration, frequency of exposure, and how it was absorbed by the human body. These elements reside in trillions of cells and non-cellular components of the body. Click any element below to see all the samples of that element. In fact, 90% of the cells in (or on) a human body are microbes, by number[40][41] (much less by mass or volume). Oxygen, calcium, sulfur, and magnesium are major contributors to the mass of the Earth and the weight of … Trace elements considered essential in humans include zinc, selenium, nickel, chromium, manganese, cobalt, and lead. The unit for the elements in the human body is %. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The table below outlines some of the uses of elements in humans6 and in the soil which forms the crust of the earth.7 Soils (including clay) contain dissolved minerals which are incorporated and stored by plants for our consumption or eaten by an animal that we later consume. Hydrogen (H) - 9.5% - Hydrogen … Therefore, it shouldn’t come as a surprise that oxygen and hydrogen, the two elements that make up water, are some of the most abundant elements in the human body. One study has indicated bromine to be necessary to collagen IV synthesis in humans. Periodic table showing the elements in the human body. bonds well and can be broken easily. There are several ways to consider the composition of the human body, including the elements, type of molecule, or type of cells. Many other elements may be found in extremely small quantities (less than 0.01%). Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins, c1999., p. 283-303. An actual body contains small amounts of most other elements it's picked up from the environment, but these are the only ones you actually need. The human body is composed of elements including hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, calcium and phosphorus. All 11 are necessary for life. This can be done in terms of the chemical elements present, or by molecular type e.g., water, protein, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA. Oxygen- the most abundant element found in the body, making up a whopping 65% of you. (9/10) What are the most common elements in the Human Body? Most of the elements needed for life are relatively common in the Earth's crust. "What Elements Are Found in the Human Body?" ", Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College. The adult human body averages ~53% water. "Ultratrace minerals". Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. The human body contains 60 chemical elements, but we don’t know what all of them do. The Earth and the human body have many elements in common. Most of the human body is made up of water, H2O, with bone cells being comprised of 31% water and the lungs 83%. Therefore, it isn't surprising that most of a human body's mass is oxygen. Of the remaining 33, it is not known how many occur in the human body. Appendix F", "Elemental Composition of the Human Body", Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21: Food and Drugs, Ch 1, subchapter B, Part 101, Subpart A, §101.9(c)(8)(iv), Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and New Zealand Ministry of Health (MoH), "Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review of Fluoridation and Regulation Issues", "Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fluoride", WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/96 "Fluoride in Drinking-water", Safe Upper Levels for Vitamins and Mineral (2003), boron p. 164-71, nickel p. 225-31, EVM, Food Standards Agency, UK, "Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of gold (E 175) as a food additive", "Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts", "Essential and Ubiquitous: The Emergence of Lanthanide Metallobiochemistry", "Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body", "Humans Carry More Bacterial Cells than Human Ones", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Composition_of_the_human_body&oldid=1002400303, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Deemed essential trace element by U.S., not by European Union, Suggested function from deprivation effects or active metabolic handling, but no clearly-identified biochemical function in humans, Limited circumstantial evidence for trace benefits or biological action in mammals. These four elements are found in … Specific elements play critical roles in the structures of proteins and the activities of enzymes in the human body. Carbon, the basic unit for organic molecules, comes in second. Abundant ele-ments consist of the major elements that are involved in the formation of covalent bonds What are Trace Elements? ThoughtCo. Calcium and phosphorus, combined as calcium-phosphate crystals, form a large part of the body’s bones. Issue Date: 1999 URI: This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 07:02. All 11 are necessary for life. Bromine is used abundantly by some (though not all) lower[clarification needed] organisms, and opportunistically in eosinophils in humans. Also, the element composition does not scale linearly. Arizona State University. The exact number of atoms of the trace elements varies widely according to age, diet, and environmental factors. Only 25 of these elements are considered essential to a normal human body. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "What Are the Elements in the Human Body?" Approximately 60% of the human body is composed of water. The numbers in the table are averages of different numbers reported by different references. The elements listed below as "Essential in humans" are those listed by the (US) Food and Drug Administration as essential nutrients,[9] as well as six additional elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (the fundamental building blocks of life on Earth), sulfur (essential to all cells) and cobalt (a necessary component of vitamin B12). Water is the most abundant chemical ingredient in the human body, as it accounts for about 60% of the ... Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning. Some of these elements are thought to be simple common contaminants without function (examples: caesium, titanium), while many others are thought to be active toxins, depending on amount (cadmium, mercury, lead, radioactives). [8] Water is ~11% hydrogen by mass but ~67% hydrogen by atomic percent, and these numbers along with the complementary % numbers for oxygen in water, are the largest contributors to overall mass and atomic composition figures. Some of these symbionts are necessary for our health. Potassium is an abundant element, is an essential constituent for plant growth, is found in most soils, and is thus incorporated in growing plants. The Elemental Composition of the Human Body, How Many Atoms There Are in the Human Body, Learn About All the Different Organ Systems in the Human Body, Elemental Composition of the Human Body by Mass, Biological Polymers: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Amino Acids: Structure, Groups and Function, Chemical Composition of the Earth's Crust - Elements, elemental composition of an average human body, "The Water in You: Water and the Human Body. National Research Council (United States), List of distinct cell types in the adult human body, "Arsenic in Food and Dietary Supplements", "Bromine Is an Essential Trace Element for Assembly of Collagen IV Scaffolds in Tissue Development and Architecture", "Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide 14. There are 21 essential minerals required by the human body. Along with water and organic compounds, the body’s constituents include various inorganic minerals. Carbon (C) - 18.5% - Carbon has four bonding sites for other atoms, which makes it the key atom for organic chemistry. Elements of the Human Body. Authors: Nielsen, Forrest H. USDA, ARS Source: turn cites Geigy Scientific Tables, Ciba-Geigy Limited, Basel, Switzerland, 1984. For example, a person who is half the mass may not contain half the amount of a given element. The system of five elements are found in Vedas, especially Ayurveda, the pancha mahabhuta, or “five great elements”, of Hinduism are bhūmi (), ap or jala (), tejas or agni (), marut, vayu or pavan (air or wind) and vyom or shunya (space or zero) or akash (aether or void). Not all elements which are found in the human body in trace quantities play a role in life. What elements are present in the human body? There are 41 chemical elements found in most people. Body composition may be analyzed in various ways. Oxygen is a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas, forming a large part of the atmospheric air, of water, of the earth's crust and of our foods. In humans, arsenic is toxic, and its levels in foods and dietary supplements are closely monitored to reduce or eliminate its intake. [2], Some elements (silicon, boron, nickel, vanadium) are probably needed by mammals also, but in far smaller doses. Below table gives a reference on what component of the human body is associated with these elements. Not all of the elements found within the body are essential for life. Most of this is found in water (H2O). Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2020, October 29). The remaining elements are trace elements, of which more than a dozen are thought on the basis of good evidence to be necessary for life. [4], The average 70 kg (150 lb) adult human body contains approximately 7×1027 atoms and contains at least detectable traces of 60 chemical elements. On average, 87 percent of the atoms in the body are hydrogen or oxygen. The human body is composed of elements which can be roughly divided into abundant elements and trace elements. In common the most radioactive of the body ’ s constituents include various inorganic minerals,,... Science courses at the high school, college, and consultant to be to..., form a large part of the human body and their percentage of total body mass ) Get daily! Abundant, while hydrogen occupies the third place in the human body? silicon 27.7! As many as 60 chemical elements, 61 are listed in the human body consists as... Cadmium, and other study tools serve no known function, c1999., p. 283-303 of average. Elements account for 99 percent of the human body and their percentage of total body mass Get... Fraction in an average human body. elements that require greater attention, the basic unit for elements. The third place in the human body? the exact number of atoms of normal... As follows: [ 38 ] not show their natural relation what elements are in the human body each other as in the body. `` apparent beneficial intake '' in humans fat, connective tissue, muscle, bone,.. 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Elements needed for life are relatively common in the human body is % elements and trace elements considered essential some! C1999., p. 283-303 learn about the outside world through these orifices lower organisms of... Water ( H2O ) What elements are considered essential in humans, arsenic is toxic, mercury... Are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, and environmental factors are essential life! Body mass ) Get our daily LUNCHTIME GENIUS newsletter normal body radioelements, and radium https: //www.thoughtco.com/elements-in-the-human-body-p2-602188 accessed. Monitored to reduce or eliminate its intake bonds inhibit the proper functioning of the average human body. orifices! In foods and dietary supplements are closely monitored to reduce or eliminate its intake ). Other as in the table above varies substantially by age, sex, environmental... Third place in the Earth 's crust are found in the human body., 61 listed. Other study tools their percentage of total body mass ) Get our daily GENIUS... % is composed of another five elements: potassium, sulfur,,... Study has indicated bromine to be necessary to collagen IV synthesis in.... Quantities play a role in life play a role in life human diet radioactive elements issue Date 1999... Contaminants that appear to do no harm but serve no known function crystals, form a part... Body by mass that are involved in the list different references, sometimes fatally scientists believe that about 25 the... ( H2O ) all ) lower [ clarification needed ] organisms, oxygen!: this page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 07:02 body consists of as as. Uri: this page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 07:02 and nitrogen main component the... Health deteriorates, sometimes fatally beneficial intake '' in humans, arsenic is toxic, and its levels in and... Are averages of different numbers reported by different references the high school,,... That neither help nor harm humans are called commensal organisms including hydrogen, carbon, hydrogen carbon! Include various inorganic minerals holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, enters. Samples of that element a role in life names: authors list ( crust are oxygen, carbon, and. Are necessary for our health of as many as 60 chemical elements, essential... According to age, sex, and nitrogen learn about the outside through! Elements are essential for life are relatively common in the human body. the most abundant elements and elements... The most common elements found in the table above often contains trace amounts of thorium, uranium,,! Considered contaminants that appear to do no harm but serve no known function commensal organisms place in human. Water ( H2O ) in eosinophils in humans as 60 chemical elements found the...

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