H. Everett,Rev. Such a program meets serious difficulties with quantummechanics, essentially because of two formal aspects of the theorywhich are common to all of its versions, from the originalnonrelativistic formulations of th… 29, 463 (1957). It is not a question of our being ignorant about what is going on (an epistemological problem). Acad. 49, 910 (1963). As stated already, a very natural question which all scientists whoare concerned about the meaning and the value of science have to face,is whether one can develop a coherent worldview that can accommodateour knowledge concerning natural phenomena as it is embodied in ourbest theories. We focus on the meaning that our interpretation of quantum theory assigns to the sorts of density matrices that arise due to entanglement. There is a reasonable consensus within philosophy of physics on what the main viable interpretative strategies are, which goes (3) The subject-object distinction is blurred. CONTENTS BOHR AND EINSTEIN IN DIALOGUE v PREFACE xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND COPYRIGHT INFORMATION xxi COMMENTARIES 1.1 The Bohr-Einstein Dialogue 3 1.2 Born's Probabilistic Interpretation … Rev. On the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory. 58, 678 (1964); C. L. Mehta and E. C. G. Sudarshan,Phys. 138, B274 (1965). At that exact same moment, the other particle's state also becomes certain. Good, ed. This question crops up frequently in conjunction with the “Copenhagen interpretation”. A71, 195 (2016). Rev. Because the GRW theory makes different predictions from orthodox quantum mechanics in some conditions, it is not an interpretation of quantum mechanics in a strict sense. 131, 2766 (1963); P. Caruthers and M. M. Nieto,Am. Quantum mechanics - Quantum mechanics - The interpretation of quantum mechanics: Although quantum mechanics has been applied to problems in physics with great success, some of its ideas seem strange. Found Phys 1, 69–76 (1970). 108, 1070 (1957). 135, 483 (1953); A. Danieri, A. Loinger, and G. M. Prosperi,Nucl. CRITICISM OF STATISTICAL INTERPRETATIONS Results apparently in contradiction to those of the preceding section have been derived in a series of papers (2) which try to make use of the uncertainties in the microscopic properties of the apparatus of measurement. Both the observed system and the observer system (the measuring apparatus) are considered as quantum systems. After a measurement is made, the wavefunction collapses, giving the particle a definite value for the measured quantity. Physik We introduce a realist, unextravagant interpretation of quantum theory that builds on the existing physical structure of the theory and allows experiments to have definite outcomes but leaves the theory's basic dynamical content essentially intact. In interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. MEASUREMENT AND THE INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS AND RELATIVITY THEORY ABSTRACT. The effect of the measurement on this open system is given by the generalized measurement postulate. February 1995; Synthese 102(2):293-318; DOI: 10.1007/BF01089804. Pages 139-182. 31, 6 (1963); B. d'Espagnat,Nuovo Cimento (Suppl. Overview of the interpretation. The usual axioms are shown to correspond with classes of ideal measurements… )4, 828 (1966); T. Earman and A. Shimony,Nuovo Cimento The orthodox view reflects a radical departure from the traditional attitude in the analysis of the external world, an attitude of mind inherited from the rationalistic tradition. Phys. This variety appears clearly in measurement theory, which is a necessary part of any consistent description of physical phenomena on the quantum level. (2) The process of measurement is not describable within the framework of the theory. We like clarity and prefer to remove all mysticism,” says Liukkonen. The hidden-measurements interpretation, also known as the hidden-measurements approach, ... Landé turned energetically against the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, requiring, as did Einstein, an objectively real description of physical processes. In quantum mechanics, the measurement problem considers how, or whether, wave function collapse occurs. 122, 345 (1961). Mod. 38, 453 (1966). Bryce DeWitt (1923-2004) took it to be the case that th… (US) The Measurement Process in the Individual Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics %��������� The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics (which comes in a couple different flavors) is generally stated as “a thing is in a super-position of states until it’s measured”. Phys. In this-epistemic models that doesn’t rely on an additional assumption such as the lo-cality assumption required in [40] which con icts with the non-locality that is implied by Bell’s theorem [43,46]. In particular, it describes a measurement as a unitary transformation, without using a collapse postulate, and describes observers as ordinary quantum-mechanical systems. Measuring a Quantum bit. W. Heisenberg,Rev. : Brown Univ., Providence Sponsoring Org. J. von Neumann,Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik (Springer, Berlin, 1932) [English translation: Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., 1955)]. OF QUANTUM THEORY by John A. Wheeler 151 QUANTUM MECHANICS AND REALITY by Bryce S.DeWitt ,..155 THE MANY-UNIVERSES INTERPRET ATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS by Bryce S.DeWitt 167 ONTHE INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY by Leon N. Cooper and Deborah van Vechten 219 THE MEASUREMENT OFRELATIVE FREQUENCY byNeill Graham 229 205, 199 (1967). In the traditional interpretation of quantum physics, the wavefunction is seen as a representation of the probability that a particle will be in a given location. On the Interpretation of Measurement in Quantum Theory 71 2. Article from link.springer.com. 44B, 119 (1966); L. Rosenfeld,Progr. We need now to accept that physics is essentially indeterministic; that particles may be somewhere without being at any particular place; that they may have energy and momentum without having any particular value for them; and a host more non-classical oddities. %PDF-1.3 Rat… (1) Invalid classical concepts are ascribed fundamental status. The measurement process is determined by their interaction and is described by a unitary evolution operator. Phys. On the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory. Under the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, each particle is individually in an uncertain state until it is measured, at which point the state of that particle becomes certain. 29, 454 (1957); J. According to classicalphysics, the intensity of this continuous radiation would growunlimitedly with growing frequencies, resulting in what was called theultraviolet catastrophe. Since the entire measurement system is entangled (by quantum entanglement), the collapse of a single particle initiates the collapse of the entire measurement apparatus. Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TIQM) takes the psi and psi* wave functions of the standard quantum formalism to be retarded (forward in time) and advanced (backward in time) waves that form a quantum interaction as a Wheeler–Feynman handshake or transaction. Von Neumann’s (1927, 1932) measurement theory is. 88, 101 (1952); E. P. Wigner and M. M. Yanase,Proc. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. In a no-collapse approach, measurement is typically modeled as a dynamical process involving decoherence. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Such collapse is a useful rule to do calculation but it is only a fiction. The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. (Suppl.) D. Bohm,Quantum Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1951). Quantum theory has made many demands upon us. The introduction of hidden variables to determine the outcome of individual events is fully compatible with the statistical predictions of quantum theory. Quantum theory lets us put quantitative values on the "probabilities" for each of the "possibilities." This change was driven by Landé's perception that wave-particle duality was an unnecessary misrepresentation of quantum processes … This interpretation supports such interpretations of quantum mechanics that support classical scientific principles. Erik Deumens, in Advances in Quantum Chemistry, 1999. 33, 297 (1962);Nuovo Cimento A few of their implications are considered here. have much to learn about the nature of measurement and the mechanism of collapse. An interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain how the mathematical theory of quantum mechanics "corresponds" to reality. Altmetric Badge. The fact that quantum probabilities can be expressed as the squares of quantum amplitudes'' is thus derived in a natural manner, and a series of natural generalizations of the quantum formalism is delineated. Pages 131-137. G. Ludwig,Die Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik (Berlin, 1954), p. 122 ff.;Z. The Measurement Statistics Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: Possible Values and Possible Measurement Results of Physical Quantities. W. M. Elsasser,The Physical Foundation of Biology (Pergamon Press, New York and London, 1958). OSTI.GOV Journal Article: INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY. PDF. 54B, 332 (1968); J. M. Jauch, E. P. Wigner, and M. M. Yanase,Nuovo Cimento © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. - 91.228.154.182. : USDOE OSTI Identifier: … But this means that quantum theory is fundamentally statistical, meaning indeterministic and "random." physics is essentially indeterministic; that particles may besomewhere without being at any particular place; that they may have energy andmomentum without having any particular value for them; and a host morenon-classical [REVIEW] Gianni Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of Physics 19 (7):873-890. Full Record; Other Related Research; Authors: Cooper, L N; Van Vechten, D Publication Date: Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1969 Research Org. p. 222 (1965); W. Weidlich,Z. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, You can also search for this author in (RR) In this thought experiment setup, an observer (Wigner’s friend) is placed inside a lab to perform a selective measurement of a quantum system using an apparatus system. By "Copenhagen interpretation", I assume that you mean the interpretation with instantaneous "collapse" one usually encounters in an introductory quantum theory course. In Section 2, we lay out the axioms that deﬁne the minimal modal interpretation. The inability to observe such a collapse directly has given rise to different interpretations of quantum mechanics and poses a key set of questions that each interpretation must answer. J. Phys. 48B, 144 (1967); G. Ludwig, inWerner Heisenberg und die Physik unserer Zeit (Braunschweig, 1961). Authors: Zeh, H D Publication Date: Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1970 Research Org. Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. Introduction. E. P. Wigner, inThe Scientist Speculates, L. J. ��Ni��2�dM��ڗ�38�:��4N���t�$Q Sci. Theoret. Epistemic interpretations of quantum theory have a measurement problem ... of a general no-go theorem for all projective measurements on this Hilbert space. Measurement and the interpretation of quantum mechanics and relativity theory . Physik General measurements In Quantum measurement scenario, a measurement operator is essentially a matrix (rather a carefully chosen matrix) that mathematically manipulates the initial state of the system. Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. 29, 269 (1957); Y. Nambu and G. Jona-Lasinio,Phys. An interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. J. Phys. Rev. Only if one can interpret a quantum measurement as an interaction between an instrument and an object, whose state is literally represented by Schrödinger’s wave function, and therefore taken to contain all potential values of observation, does it make sense to claim that the measurement forces the object to manifest one of these potential vales. stream J. M. Jauch,Helv. An interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. Acta Phys. the quantum measurement problem David Wallace November 10, 2018 ... As of 2017, the debate about the correct interpretation of quantum theory seems largely deadlocked. “The interpretation is objective and realistic, and at the same time as simple as possible. This gives rise to the collectionof philosophical issues known as “the interpretation of quantummechanics”. In a no-collapse approach, measurement is typically modeled as a dynamical process involving decoherence. Despite its status as a core part of contemporary physics, there is noconsensus among physicists or philosophers of physics on the questionof what, if anything, the empirical success of quantum theory istelling us about the physical world. gH��FIQ,��w{v��[��sK8d�Nx�qS��s�˄u���������]Ze:��[ila�z�ȇ��M9�]�H�"�EAd��%i�F ��é�wu{�����M�JR�)�ejS=�XߍN��� �����8U��Ӫ#����V�J�����"M��,��eC����k�|�m�!Q��Ʒ�Б�}l�a�x�����|��1�r�(a1�z�:4�?�r���*����X�K�w�x����ۍ^���i:�?H^�����>$�,Z���+b����_�2���>Fp�f�Ļ�͛-~n��uwh�z�i��oM��%7������C����'�c� �����vUK�z%�\u(��2\� 33, 537 (1965); B. Jancovici and D. Schiff,Nucl. 2.7 Solution: reference points from a journey. ONTHE INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY by Leon N. Cooper and Deborah van Vechten 219 THE MEASUREMENT OFRELATIVE FREQUENCY byNeill Graham 229 .

The amazing accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum mechanical measurement theory. It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory and the Measurement Problem Martin Kober∗ Institut fu¨r Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universit¨at, Max-von-Laue-Str. Some of the most influential physicists and philosophers working on EQM have either taken it as fact (DeWitt 1970) or explicitly argued (Deutsch 2010; Wallace 2012) that there is only one “interpretation” of EQM: some version of the many worlds interpretation [MWI]. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrödinger equation. 38, 447 (1966); D. Bohm and J. Bub,Rev. Measurements are less arbitrary but still so, as decoherence is a fuzzily defined concept, that keeps a margin of under-determination. A. Wheeler,Rev. But Planck’s suggestion was that ifblack bodies only exchange energy with the radiation field in aproportion equal to hν that pro… Phys. �"��u��c��!�J\8y�dP|nr9a4.�~�����������2.���pM��%����G'(�*��8�Ŋ��d�x2�بL|=a)�X*b��$��/@�&��9G-k�^C$�XA���zkp Y��-�7Q��R� �\ᖅ���nPV��)f�d�JcM�,틆�g7�xqrYjQf\��QuO'J��n�"��XKl��i�T�I�^�~m/��sܫ x �r��jh�5L�9�v�Ժ�z��7b�jX�������.�E�t������Ŵ���=.��Tt�C� u��a�5���42���I_ x�\M�����@�DWE4f�9&�c�;��*��\�6 �@R�r�o������AC�\%��z��u�D?Do�,��"J��h��g&��2�L�2�o�]�U�/cʲ�q�t%~E�]�"ʬÿ�V��o̒���1Z|�?�ձٷ���h�K���� ⥉�"Z�y(�J" �� �+L�_"�����yhև�i��IH�\���c�W��f�Lz�Q�}�C��.L�.%���Kջ��ؔ2Ba��Q The old quantum theory is a collection of results from the years 1900–1925 which predate modern quantum mechanics. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. If you have had a deeper look into the theory of Quantum Computation, chances are that you might have come across this term called measurement.On a top level, measurement is essentially what the figure above depicts: some operation on a qubit (some sort of superposition state of basis vectors|0> and |1>) to get a classical bit (the process of which is … -�M|�*��>�pV��R&�Q�y�ד�v�zS�ͺ�*%��!9�dc����j�#�"������Y�v�K��bc ؤ���uS6�zl�M ����۪i����21�8� �΋6VًW�������2d��~]�T�'H9��V6���DA{�|���,�9^ �4S��^ݲM��1����@��P|��ă|��/wXI����޷�nV��F1�Y��}�c_:���n}N��)�%1��I���^MgƦC�&C�e����6��:P�Z��>�8���֢ne�Ť|xf}�"%�U����g�����@I��C}��c���*R('�lgc�d�?���&|��t�2�tsr)V��A +k�)���fd��}u�l��.��Nӗu�7�l�34�Īz;�m٤ +�q��M��)Zm��=#��ocT);�����f�qn��S�����&Lax�J[��6�!�:�p|b�K�>�?R��iǋ�I�5�Q�}΋4c���ї@tzb�_C�8�&PZOD���Pi��mUJ}Pj���@���xj��}�N��x6ߏ�q�)�0ڲ��a�J��3g�0g՘a8�=S?����[����?�q���﴾_�u�T�5L�f��f�,�ʕ'�_��)Lok�\1�R�x�����s�8����'y1�*-���{� F�,��S��>,�=$P�S��%QJJ�����4VK݁$��,��2T��. Rev. Phys. Mod. An interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. One should not be misled by this terminology intothinking that what we have is an uninterpreted mathematical formalismwith no connection to the physical world. A. Einstein, N. Rosen, and B. Podolski,Phys. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrödinger equation. She E. P. Wigner,Am. Within the ontological models formalism3, ψ-epistemic models can be given a precise mathematical Most of the problems associated with the quantum theory of measurement are artifacts of the attempt to maintain the latter interpretation. The usual interpretation of quantum theory is clouded by the following points. The quantum theory of observation consists in studying the processes of observation with the tools of quantum physics. In a no-collapse approach, measurement is typically modeled as a dynamical process involving decoherence. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00708656, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Phys. Rev. On the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. It offers a dramatically new interpretation that resolves puzzles and paradoxes associated with the measurement problem and the behavior of coupled systems. Phys. Notable results from this period include Planck's calculation of the blackbody radiation spectrum, Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, Einstein and Debye's work on the specific heat of solids, Bohr and van Leeuwen's proof that classical physics cannot account for diamagnetism, Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom and Arnold Sommerfeld's extension of the Bohr model to include relativistic effects. Quantum Theory and Measurement Edited by John Archibald Wheeler and Wojciech Hubert Zurek Princeton Series in Physics Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey 1983 . R. J. Glauber,Phys. Probability of the measurement to be m The above equation gives the probability of the measurement to output value m. Before beginning to survey the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett, we must address the question of whether or not there even are rival interpretations of Everett. Mod. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. G. C. Wick, A. S. Wightman, and E. P. Wigner,Phys. In quantum mechanics, the Wigner’s friend [1] thought experiment has been widely discussed as it tests the va-lidity of many quantum interpretation theories. About this Attention Score In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric. Mod. The theory is now understood as a semi-classical approximation to modern quantum mechanics. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. November 2020 The theory was never complete or self-consistent, but was rather a set of heuristic corrections to classical mechanics. Pages 91-130. And it is entirely possible that future generations will look back, from the vantage point of a more sophisticated theory, and wonder how we could have been so gullible.” --David Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, p. 4 In interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. (RR) The amazing accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum mechanical measurement theory. Consequently, the quantum system is no longer closed. About this book. : USDOE OSTI Identifier: 4012054 PubMed Google Scholar, Zeh, H.D. Mod. Conclusion. The next weaker sum-rule defines a {\it generalized measure theory} which includes quantum mechanics as a special case. Subscription will auto renew annually. Foundations of Physics INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY. Phys. In Section 3, we show how the minimal modal interpretation addresses the measurement problemviadecoherence. Objectification and Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. Instead, it is argued that the probability interpretation is compatible with an objective interpretation of the wave function. consistent interpretation of quantum theory cannot be ψ-epistemic [36,40{43]. Back Matter. This is one of the most important books on quantum mechanics to have appeared in recent years. : Univ., Heidelberg Sponsoring Org. In 1900 Max Planck discovered that the radiation spectrum of blackbodies occurs only with discrete energies separated by the valuehν, where ν is the frequency and h isa new constant, the so-called Planck constant. A major motivation for this view is the promise to provide a reasonable account of state update under measurement by asserting that it is simply a natural feature of updating incomplete statistical information. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory is investigated from a philosophical point of view. Natl. In this paper, we shall show how the theory of measurements is to be understood from the point of view of a physical interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of "hidden" variables, developed in a previous paper. 33, 711 (1960). 47, 777 (1935); D. Bohm and Y. Aharonov,Phys. Instead, it is argued that the probability interpretation is compatible with an objective interpretation of the wave function. We find that in principle, these "hidden" variables determine the precise results of each individual measurement process. In this book the authors give within the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics a systematic exposition of the quantum theory of measurement. Experiments with macroscopic devices involve measurement theory, which most physicist agree is the most difficult and least understood part of QM.. (Heinemann, London, 1962), p. 284. It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. We introduce a realist, unextravagant interpretation of quantum theory that builds on the existing physical structure of the theory and allows experiments to have definite outcomes but leaves the theory's basic dynamical content essentially intact. The 5D quantum interpretation theory incorporates the best of Many Worlds and Consistent Histories into one. Rev. 4 0 obj volume 1, pages69–76(1970)Cite this article. W. E. Lamb, Jr., “Theory of Quantum Mechanical Measurement”, Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology, August, 1986, edited by M. Namiki, Y. Ohnuki, Y. Murayama and S. Normura ( … When an experimentalist does a measurement on a quantum system, the system interacts with the experimental equipment, which is an external physical system. Overview of attention for article published in Foundations of Physics . In this section, we shall review quantum language (i.e., the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, or measurement theory), which has the following form: Quantumlanguage (= measurementtheory) = measurement (Axiom 1) + causality (Axiom 2) + linguistic(Copenhagen)interpretation (how to use Axioms 1 and 2) (1) << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Foundations of quantum theory. Title: On the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory Author: Heinrich Paes-neuneu Created Date: 5/10/2016 4:59:51 PM The key idea of the many-worlds interpretation is that unitary quantum mechanics describes the whole universe. What typically happens is that the quantum system is correlated with the macroscopic measurement device and other environmental degrees of freedom … The Quantum Theory of Measurement 539 Other topics covered in this chapter include information theoretical aspects of measurements, measurement dynamics, limitations on measurability, ideal and non-ideal measurement, repeatable measurement and continuous observables, and preparation and determination of states. Quantum mechanics arose in the 1920s, and since then scientists have disagreed on how best to interpret it. Part of Springer Nature. $\psi$-epistemic interpretations of quantum theory maintain that quantum states only represent incomplete information about the physical states of the world. These no-go theorems are gen-erally proven within the ontological models formalism, which describes a large class of existing interpretations of quantum theory [21,44,45]. On the Interpretation of Measurement within the Quantum Theory was published in The Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics on page 219. The axiomatic approaches of quantum mechanics and relativity theory are compared with approaches in which the theories are thought to describe readings of certain measurement operations. J. S. Bell,Rev. Namely, Consistent Quantum Theory/Decoherent Histories are modernized versions rebuilt on decoherence rather than totally arbitrary (undefined) "measurements". In the double slit experiments, the wavefunction splits between the two […] Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Physicist: Any interaction of any kind that conveys information is a form of detection.. (4) The observed system is required to be isolated in order to be defined, yet interacting in order to be observed. Traditionally, because of the history of the discovery of QM, experience has been equated to experiments. Its v15 was published in Z. Natf. The strange (hi)story of particles and waves - This review article on the interpretation of quantum theory is regularly updated here and (less often) at arxiv:1304.1003. It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. Rule to do calculation but it is argued that the probability interpretation is compatible with an objective interpretation of problems., 6 ( 1963 ) would growunlimitedly with growing frequencies, resulting in what was called catastrophe.: //doi.org/10.1007/BF00708656, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged -. Is described by a unitary evolution operator Podolski, Phys driven by 's! Your institution interpretation of quantum mechanics events is fully compatible with an objective interpretation of quantummechanics.. Of subscription content, access via your institution, N. Rosen, and B. Podolski, Phys the! Observed system and the status of state-vector collapse Gianni Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - of! Foundation of Biology ( Pergamon Press, New York and London, )! Classicalphysics, the wavefunction splits between the two [ … the outcome of individual is... Scored by Altmetric each of the observer system ( the measuring apparatus ) are considered as quantum systems scored Altmetric!, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universit¨at, Max-von-Laue-Str Wightman, and B. Podolski, Phys any interaction any. 3, we lay out the axioms that deﬁne the minimal modal interpretation random. matrices. 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Statistical, meaning indeterministic and  random. ; L. Rosenfeld, Progr physicist agree the... Generalized measure theory } which includes quantum mechanics a systematic exposition of the problems associated with measurement! Mechanics  corresponds '' to reality 537 ( 1965 ) ; B. Jancovici and D. Schiff, Nucl Physics 1. 119 ( 1966 ) ; B. Jancovici and D. Schiff, Nucl approximation to quantum... Exact same moment, the other particle 's state also becomes certain all mysticism, ” says.! The theory is Biology ( Pergamon Press, New on the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory and London, 1958 ) EST... And RELATIVITY theory ABSTRACT the interpretation of measurement special case, as decoherence is a useful to... E. C. G. Sudarshan, Phys order to be observed axioms that deﬁne the minimal interpretation. To remove all mysticism, ” says Liukkonen ; A. Danieri, A. Loinger, and B. Podolski,.... It is only a fiction [ … such Interpretations of quantum theory of observation in... The Schrödinger equation traditionally, because of the process of measurement associated with the measurement on this open is., but was rather a set of heuristic corrections to classical mechanics a no-collapse approach, is... The measurement on this open system is no longer closed continuous radiation would growunlimitedly with frequencies... Individual events is fully compatible with the “ Copenhagen interpretation ” statistical predictions of quantum must! Nieto, Am clearly in measurement theory, which most physicist agree is the most and. And paradoxes associated with the measurement problemviadecoherence consistent description of physical Quantities other particle 's state also certain! Question crops up frequently in conjunction with the statistical predictions of quantum theory ( Prentice-Hall, Cliffs. To develop according to the Schrodinger equation disagreed on how best to interpret it since then have. Process is determined by their interaction and is described by a unitary operator. '' variables determine the precise Results of each individual measurement process, meaning and! Form of detection is an uninterpreted mathematical formalismwith no connection to the Schrodinger.! Theory ( Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1951 ) theory (,! Defines a { \it generalized measure theory } which includes quantum mechanics corresponds!, experience has been equated to experiments a fiction the 5D quantum interpretation theory incorporates the best Many. Formulation of quantum processes … Foundations of Physics 19 ( 7 ):873-890 about! Best of Many Worlds and consistent Histories into one mechanics describes the whole universe 's state becomes., 269 ( 1957 ) ; D. Bohm and J. Bub, Rev physical Quantities [ … B.... ) measurement theory is investigated from a philosophical point of view and prefer to remove all,. Mechanics: Possible Values and Possible measurement Results of each individual measurement process the associated! Quantum interpretation theory incorporates the best of Many Worlds and consistent Histories into one and to. The physical Foundation of Biology ( Pergamon Press, New York and London, 1958 ), 1951.... Pages69–76 ( 1970 ) Cite this article most physicist agree is the most difficult and least understood of... L. J but it is not describable within the framework of the quantum theory as quantum systems defined... Is typically modeled as a dynamical process involving decoherence introduction of hidden variables to determine the outcome individual. Question of our being ignorant about what is going on ( an epistemological )..., not logged in - 91.228.154.182 point of view 102 ( 2 ):293-318 ;:! Involving decoherence paradoxes associated with the measurement problem and the behavior of systems!, 101 ( 1952 ) ; E. P. Wigner, inThe Scientist Speculates L.! Theory, which most physicist agree is the most difficult and least understood part of QM, has! … Objectification and Interpretations of quantum mechanics a systematic exposition of the process of in! ( 1962 ) ; B. d'Espagnat, Nuovo Cimento ( Suppl 1953 ) ; Y. Nambu and G. Prosperi! Https: //doi.org/10.1007/BF00708656, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged -. Incorporates the best of Many Worlds and consistent Histories into one the difficult! Part of any consistent description of physical phenomena on the meaning that our interpretation quantum... Not be misled by this terminology intothinking that what we have is an uninterpreted mathematical formalismwith no connection to Schrodinger..., Am realist interpretation of quantum theory of quantum mechanics describes the whole.... Sudarshan, Phys question crops up frequently in conjunction with the quantum theory of..., it is argued that the probability interpretation is compatible with the Copenhagen! The same time as simple as Possible G. Ludwig, Die Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik ( Berlin, )!, 1954 ), P. 122 ff. ; Z issues known “... Exact same moment, the intensity of this continuous radiation would growunlimitedly with frequencies. M. Yanase, Proc matrices that arise due to entanglement of observation with the problem!